Journal articles and book chapters
See bottom of page for tools, datasets, and reports.
Tallis, H., S. Polasky, J. Hellmann, N. P. Springer, R. Bike, D. DeGeus, R. Dell, M. Diane, L. Diane, L. Downers, G. Goldstein, T. Hodgman, K. Johnson, I. Lucy, D. Pennington, M. Reuter, K. Severson, I. Stark, J. Stark, C. Vollmer-Sanders, and S. K. Weaver. 2018. Five Financial Incentives to Revive the Gulf of Mexico Dead Zone and Mississippi Basin Soils. Journal of Environmental Management. In press.
Grecequet, M., E. Saikawa, and J. J. Hellmann. 2018. Select but diverse countries are reducing both climate vulnerability and CO2 emissions. Elementa. In press.
Ryan, S., J. M. Deines, J. M. Scriber, M. E. Pfrender, S. E. Jones, S. J. Emrich and J. J. Hellmann. 2018. Climate-mediated hybrid zone movement revealed with genomics, museum collection, and simulation modeling. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Online early
Grecequet, M., J. J. Hellmann, J. DeWaard and Y. Li. 2018. Comparison of human and non-human migration governance under climate change. In Edmondson, B., and S. Levy, eds. Transformative Climates and Accountable Governance. In press.
Kriss, M. R., J. J. Hellmann, E. Lonsdorf, N. Springer, P. H. Kriss, M. Horster. 2017. A geofinancial engineering initiative: using real-time environmental data from satellites to move financial markets and improve climate outcomes. Journal of Environmental Investing 8: 129-159. PDF Commentary on Physics World.
Ryan, S. F., M. C. Fontaine, J. M. Scriber, M. E. Pfrender, S. T. O’Neil, and J. J. Hellmann. 2017. Patterns of divergence across the geographic and genomic landscape of a butterfly hybrid zone associated with a climatic gradient. Molecular Ecology 26: 4725-4742. Abstract
Grecequet, M., J. DeWaard, J. J. Hellmann, and G. Abel. 2017. Climate vulnerability and human migration in global perspective. Sustainability 9: 720. PDF. (See also description of this research in: Migration reduces climate risk for many but not all.)
Keeler, B. L., R. Chaplin-Kramer, A. D. Guerry, P. F. E. Addison, C. Bettigole, I. C. Burke, L. Chambliss, C. Darimont, B. Gentry, D. R Gordon, J. J. Hellmann, P. Kareiva, S. Monfort, L. Olander, H. P. Possingham, T. Profeta, C. Schlotterback, E. Sterling, T. Ticktin, A. J. Travis, B. Vira, and C. Young. 2017. Society is ready for a new kind of science–is academia? BioScience 67: 591-592. Online.
Barnosky, A. D., E. A. Hadly, P. Gonzalez, J. Head, P. D. Polly, A. M. Lawing, J. T. Eronen, D. D. Ackerly, K. Alex, E. Biber, J. Blois, J. Brashares, B. Ceballos, E. Davis, G. P. Dietl, R. Dirzo, H. Dormeuse, M. Fortblies, H. Greene, J. Hellmann, T. Hickler, S. T. Jackson, M. Kemp, P. L. Koch, C. Kremen, E. L. Lindsey, C. Looy, C. R. Marshall, C. Mendenhall, A. Mulch, A. M. Mychajiw, C. Nowak, U. Ramakrishnan, J. Schnitzler, K. Das Shreshta, K. Solari, L. Stegner, M. A. Stegner, N. Chr. Stenseth, M. H. Wake, and Z. Zhang. 2017. Merging paleobiology with conservation biology to guide the future of terrestrial ecosystems. Science 335: DOI: 10.1126/science.aah4787. Abstract EurekAlert!
Sharma, A., H. J. S. Fernando, J. J. Hellmann, M. Barrage, and F. Chen. 2017. Urban meteorological modeling using WRF: A sensitivity study. International Journal of Climatology 37: 1885-1900. Abstract
Chen, C., J. J. Hellmann, L. Berrang-Ford, I. Noble, and P. Regan. 2016. A global assessment of adaptation investment from the perspectives of equity and efficiency. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 23: 101-122. Abstract
Urban, M. C., G. Bocedi, A. P. Hendry, J.-B. Mihoub, G. Pe’er, A. Singer, J. R. Bridle, L. G. Crozier, L. De Meester, W. Godsoe, A. Gonzalez, J. J. Hellmann, R. D. Holt, A. Huth, K. Johst, C. B. Krug, P. W. Leadley, S. C. F. Palmer, J. H. Pantel, A. Schmitz, P. A. Zollner, and J. M. J. Travis. 2016. Improving the forecast for biodiversity under climate change. Science 353: DOI: 10.1126/science.aad8466. Abstract. EurekAlert!
Hellmann, J. J., R. Grundel, C. Hoving, an G. W. Schuurman. 2016. A call to insect scientists: challenges and opportunities of managing insect communities under came change. Current Opinion in Insect Science 17: 92-97. Abstract.
Doherty, M., K. Klima, and J. J. Hellmann. 2016. Climate Change in the Urban Environment: Advancing, Measuring and Achieving Resiliency. Environmental Science and Policy 66: 310-313. Abstract [introduction to a special issue edited by M. Doherty, K. Klima, and J. J. Hellmann on climate change adaptation in urban environments]
Chen, C., M. Doherty, J. Coffee, T. Wong, and J. J. Hellmann. 2016. Measuring the adaptation gap: a framework for evaluating climate hazards and opportunities in urban areas. Environmental Science and Policy 66: 403-419. Abstract [part of a special issue edited by M. Doherty, K. Klima, and J. J. Hellmann on climate change adaptation in urban environments]
Sharma, A., P. Conroy, H. Fernando, A. Hamlet, J. Hellmann, and F. Chen. 2016. Green and cool roofs to mitigate urban heat island effects in Chicago metropolitan area: evaluation with a regional climate model. Environmental Research Letters 11: 064004. Online & video abstract
Hällfors, M. H., S. Aikio, S. Fronzek, J. J. Hellmann, T. Ryttäri, and R. K. Heikkinen. 2016. Assessing the need and potential of assisted migration using species distribution models. Biological Conservation 196: 60-68. Abstract
Hällfors, M. H. J. Liao, J. D. K. Dzurisin, R. Gundel, M. Hyvärinenf, K. Towle, G. C. Wu, and J. J. Hellmann. 2016. Addressing potential local adaptation in species distribution models: implications for conservation under climate change. Ecological Applications 26: 1154-1169. Abstract
Beever, E. A., J. O’Leary, C. Mengelt, J. M. West, S. Julius, N. Green, D. Magness, L. Petes, B. Stein, A. B. Nicotra, J. J. Hellmann, A. L. Robertson, M. D. Staudinger, A. A. Rosenberg, E. Babij, J. Brennan, G. W. Schuurman, and G. E. Hoffmann. 2016. Improving conservation outcomes with a new paradigm for understanding species’ fundamental and realized adaptive capacity. Conservation Letters 9: 131-137. Online
Javeline, D., J. J. Hellmann, J. S. McLachlan, D. F. Sax, M. W. Schwartz, and R. Castro Cornejo. 2015. Expert opinion on extinction risk and climate change adaptation for biodiversity. Elementa 3: 000057. Online
Prior, K., T. H. Q. Powell, A. L. Joseph, and J. J. Hellmann. 2015. Insights from community ecology into the role of enemy release in causing invasion success: the importance of native enemy effects. Biological Invasions 17: 1283-1297. Abstract
Derby-Lewis, A., R. K. Mosely, K. R. Hall, and J. J. Hellmann. 2015. Conservation of urban biodiversity under climate change: climate-smart management for Chicago green spaces. Page 277-296 In Handbook of Climate Change Adaptation. Leal, W., ed. Springer, New York NY.
Conry, P., A. Sharma, M. J. Potosnak, L. S. Leo, E. Bensman, J. J. Hellmann, and H. J. S. Fernando. 2015. Chicago’s heat island and climate change: bridging the scales via dynamical downscaling. Journal of Applied Meterology and Climatology 54: 1430-1448. Abstract
Williams, C. M., A. Nicholai, L. V. Ferguson, M. A. Bernards, J. J. Hellmann, and B. J. Sinclair. 2014. Cold hardiness and deacclimiation of overwintering Papilio zelicaon pupae. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 178: 51-58. Abstract
O’Neil, S., J. Dzurisin, C. Williams, N. Lobo, J. Higgins, J. Deines, R. Carmichael, E. Zeng, J. Tan, G. Wu, S. Emrich, and J. Hellmann. 2014. Gene expression in closely-related species mirrors local adaptation: consequences for responses to a warming world. Molecular Ecology 23: 2686-2698. Abstract
Prior, K. M., and J. J. Hellmann. 2014. A review of the enemy release hypothesis as an explanation for the success of an invasive species. Pages 252-279 In Invasive Species in a Globalized World. Keller, R. P., M. Cadotte, and G. Sandiford, eds. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL. Amazon
Lunt, I., M. Byrne, J. J. Hellmann, N. J. Mitchell, S. T. Garnett, M. W. Hayward, T. G. Martin, E. McDonald-Madden, S. E. Williams, and K. K. Zander. 2013. Using assisted colonisation to conserve biodiversity and restore ecosystem function under climate change. Biological Conservation 157: 172-177. Article
Bocedi, G., K. E. Atkins, J. Liao, R. Henry, J. M. J. Travis, and J. J. Hellmann. 2013. Effects of local adaptation and inter-specific competition on species’ responses to climate change. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1297: 83-97. Abstract
Javeline, D., J. J. Hellmann, R. Castro Cornejo, and G. Shufeldt. 2013. Expert opinion on climate change and threats to biodiversity. BioScience 63: 666-673. PDF
Straudinger, M. D., S. L. Carter, M. S. Cross, N. S. Dubois, J. M. Duffy, C. Enquist, R. Griffis, J. J. Hellmann, J. J. Lawler, J. O’Leary, S. A. Morrison, L. Sneddon, B. A. Stein, L. M. Thompson, and W. Turner. 2013. Biodiversity in a changing climate: a synthesis of current and projected trends in the US. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 11: 465-473. PDF
Stein, B., A. Staudt, M. S. Cross, N. S. Dubois, C. Enquist, R. Griffis, L. J. Hansen, J. J. Hellmann, J. J. Lawler, E. J. Nelson, and A. Pairis. 2013. Preparing for and managing change: climate adaptation for biodiversity and ecosystems. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 11: 502-510. PDF
Sharma, A., F. Bouchard, S. Ryan, D. Parker, and J. J. Hellmann. 2013. Species are the building blocks of ecosystem services and environmental sustainability. Ethics, Policy and Environment 16: 29-32. [commentary]Abstact
Prior, K. M., and J. J. Hellmann. 2013. Does enemy loss cause release? A biogeographical comparison of parasitoid effects on an introduced insect. Ecology 94: 1015-1024. Abstract
Schwartz, M., J. Hellmann, J. McLachlan, D. Sax, J. Borevitz, J. Brennan, A. Camacho, G. Ceballos, J. Rappaport Clark, H. Doremus, R. Early, J. Etterson, D. Fielder, J. Gill, P. Gonzalez, N. Green, L. Hannah, D. Jamieson, D. Javeline, B. Minteer, J. Odenbaugh, S. Polasky, D. Richardson, T. Root, and H. Safford. 2012. Managed relocation: integrating the scientific, regulatory and ethical challenges. BioScience 62: 732-743. Press release Article
Hunt, I., M. Byrne, J. Hellmann, N. Mitchell, S. Garnett, M. Hayward, T. Martin, E. McDonald-Madden, S. Williams, and K. Zander. 2013. Using assisted colonisation to conserve biodiversity and restore ecosystem function under climate change. Biological Conservation 157: 172-177. Abstract
Johnson, R. A., N. V. Chawla, and J. J. Hellmann. 2012. Species distribution modeling and prediction: a class imbalance problem. In Proceedings of the Conference on Intelligent Data Understanding, Boulder, CO. DOI: 10.1109/CIDU.2012.6382186. Article.
Ibáñez, I., E. S. Gornish, L. Buckley, D. M. Debinski, J. Hellmann, B. Helmuth, J. HilleRisLambers, A. M. Latimer, A. J. Miller-Rushing, and M. Uriarte. 2013. Moving forward in global-change ecology: capitalizing on natural variability. Ecology and Evolution 3: 170-181. Abstract
Williams, C. W., K. E. Marshall, H. A. MacMillan, J. D. K. Dzurisin, J. J. Hellmann, and B. J. Sinclair. 2012. Thermal variability increases the impact of autumnal warming and drives metabolic depression in an overwintering butterfly. PLoS One 7: e34470. Article
Hellmann, J. J., K. M. Prior, and S. L. Pelini. 2012. The influence of species interactions on geographic range change under climate change. Year in Ecology and Conservation Biology 1249: 18-28. Abstract
Williams, C. M., J. J. Hellmann, and B. J. Sinclair. 2012. Lepidopteran species differ in susceptibility to winter warming. Climate Research 53: 119-130. Abstract
Hellmann, J. J., and M. E. Pfrender. 2011. Future human intervention in ecosystems and the critical role of evolutionary biology. Conservation Biology 25: 1143-1147. Abstract
Hellmann, J. J., V. J. Meretsky, and J. S. McLachlan. 2011. Strategies for conserving biodiversity under a changing climate. Pages 363-288 In: Hannah, L., ed. Saving a Million Species: Extinction Risk from Climate Change. Island Press, Washington, DC.
Deines, J. M., J. J. Hellmann, and T. J. Curran. 2011. Traits associated with drought survival in three Australian tropical rainforest seedlings. Australian Journal of Botany 59: 620-628. Abstract
Aardema, M. L., J. M. Scriber, and J. J. Hellmann. 2011. Considering local adaptation in issues of lepidopteran conservation — a review and recommendations. American Midland Naturalist 165: 294-303. Abstract
Prior, K. M., and J. J. Hellmann. 2010. Impact of an invasive oak-gall wasp on a native butterfly: a test of plant-mediated competition. Ecology 91: 3284-3293. Abstract
Pelini, S. L., J. Keppel, A. Kelley, and J. J. Hellmann. 2010. Adaptation to host plants may prevent rapid insect response to climate change. Global Change Biology 16: 2923-2929. Abstract
O’Neil, S. T., J. D. K. Dzurisin, R. Carmichael, N. F. Lobo, S. J. Emrich, and J. J. Hellmann. 2010. Population-level transcriptome sequencing of nonmodel organisms Erynnis propertius and Papilio zelicaon. BMC Genomics 11: 310. PDF
Hellmann, J. J., K. J. Nadelhoffer, L. R. Iverson, L. H. Ziska, S. N. Matthews, P. Myers, A. M. Prasad, and M. P. Peters. 2010. Climate change impacts on terrestrial ecosystems in metropolitan Chicago and its surrounding, multi-state region. Journal of Great Lakes Research 36(2): 74-85. Abstract
Williams, C. M., S. L. Pelini, J. J, Hellmann, and B. J. Sinclair. 2010. Intra-individual variation allows an explicit test of the hygric hypothesis of discontinuous gas exchange in insects. Biology Letters 6: 274-277. Abstract
Pelini, S. L., J. D. K. Dzurisin, K. M. Prior, C. M. Williams, T. D. Marsico, B. J. Sinclair, and J. J. Hellmann. 2009. Translocation experiments with butterflies reveal limits to enhancement of poleward populations under climate change. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106: 11160-11165. Abstract
Marsico, T. D., and J. J. Hellmann. 2009. Dispersal limitation inferred from an experimental translocation of Lomatium (Apiaceae) species outside their geographic ranges. Oikos 118: 1783-1792. Abstract
Richardson, D. M., J. J. Hellmann, J. S. McLachlan, D. F. Sax, M. W. Schwartz, P. Gonzalez, E. J. Brennan, A. Camacho,, T. L. Root, O. E. Sala, S. H. Schneider, D. M. Ashe, J. R. Clark, R. Early, J. R. Etterson, E. D. Fielder, J. L. Gill, B. A. Minteer, S. Polasky, H. D. Safford, A. R. Thompson, and M. Vellend. 2009. Multidimensional evaluation of managed relocation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106: 9721-9724. PDF
Zakharov, E. V., N. F. Lobo, C. Nowak, and J. J. Hellmann. 2009. Introgression as a likely cause of mtDNA paraphyly in two allopatric skippers (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae). Heredity 102: 590-599. Abstract
Prior, K. M., J. D. K. Dzurisin, S. L. Pelini, and J. J. Hellmann. 2009. Biology of larvae and adults of Erynnis propertius at the northern edge of its range. The Canadian Entomologist 141: 161-171. Abstract
Pelini, S. L.*, K. M. Prior*, D. J. Parker, J. D.K. Dzurisin, R. L. Lindroth and J. J. Hellmann. 2009. Climate change and temporal and spatial mismatches in insect communities. In Trevor M. Letcher, editor. Climate Change: Observed impacts on Planet Earth. Elsevier, The Netherlands. pp. 215-231. (* = authors contributed equally)
Marsico, T., J. J. Hellmann, and J. Romero-Severson. 2009. Patterns of seed dispersal and pollen flow in Quercus garryana (Fagaceae) following postglacial climatic changes. Journal of Biogeography 36: 929-941. Abstract
Nowak, C., C. M. Brown, and J. J. Hellmann. 2009. Microsatellite markers for the hybridizing tiger swallowtails, Papilio glaucus and Papilio canadensis, and their applicability to historic specimens and congeneric species. Molecular Ecology Resources 9: 800-803. Abstract
Hellmann, J. J., S. L. Pelini, K. M. Prior, and J. D. K. Dzurisin. 2008. The response of two butterfly species to climatic variation at the edge of their range and the implications for poleward range shifts. Oecologia 157: 583-592. Abstract
Hellmann, J. J., J. E. Byers, B. G. Bierwagen, and J. S. Dukes. 2008. Five potential consequences for invasive species under climate change. Conservation Biology 22: 534-543. Abstract
Mueller, J. M., and J. J. Hellmann. 2008. An assessment of invasion risk from assisted migration. Conservation Biology 22: 562-567. Abstract
Pyke, C. R., R. Thomas, R. D. Porter, J. J. Hellmann, J. S. Dukes, D. Lodge, and G. Chavarria. 2008. Climate change and invasive species policy: interactions, tensions, and synergies. Conservation Biology 22: 585-592. Abstract
Zakharov, E. V., and J. J. Hellmann. 2008. Genetic differentiation across a latitudinal gradient in two co-occurring butterfly species: revealing population differences in a context of climate change. Molecular Ecology 71: 289-308. Abstract
[Correction to acknowledgements: The authors thank Dr. Art Shapiro and his research group for the dozens of California samples that they provided for this study.]
Hellmann*, J. J., and M. Pineda-Krch*. 2007. Constraints and reinforcement on adaptation under climate change: selection of genetically correlated traits. Biological Conservation 137: 599-609. (*=authors contributed equally) Abstract
McLachlan, J. S., J. J. Hellmann, and M. W. Schwartz. 2007. A framework for debate of assisted migration in an era of climate change. Conservation Biology 21: 297-302. Abstract
Hellmann*, J. J., and N. J. Sanders*. 2007. The extent and future of global insect diversity. Issues in Environmental Science and Technology 25: 33-55. (*=authors contributed equally) PDF
Zakharov, E. V., J. J. Hellmann, J. Romero-Severson. 2007. Microsatellite loci in the Propertius duskywing, Erynnis propertius (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae), and related species. Molecular Ecology Notes 7: 266-268. Abstract
Zakharov, E. V., and J. J. Hellmann. 2007. Characterization of 17 polymorphic microsattelite loci in the Anise swallowtail, Papilio zelicaon (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae), and their amplification in related species. Molecular Ecology Notes 7: 144-146. Abstract
Hughes, J. B., and J. J. Hellmann. 2005. The application of rarefaction techniques to molecular inventories of microbial diversity. Methods in Enzymology 297: 292-308. Abstract
Hellmann, J. J., S. B. Weiss, A. E. Launer, J. F. McLaughlin, and P. R. Ehrlich. 2004. Structure and dynamics of Edith’s checkerspot populations. (Book: On the Wings of Checkerspots: A Model System for Population Biology; Oxford University Press.)
Hanski, I., J. J. Hellmann, C. L. Boggs, and J. F. McLaughlin. 2004. Checkerspots as a model system in population biology. (Book: On the Wings of Checkerspots: A Model System for Population Biology; Oxford University Press)
Hanski, I., P. Ehrlich, M. Nieminen, D. D. Murphy, J. J. Hellmann, C. L. Boggs, and J. F. McLaughlin. 2004. Conservation biology. (Book: On the Wings of Checkerspots: A Model System for Population Biology; Oxford University Press)
Kuussaari, M., S. vanNouhuys, J. J. Hellmann, and M. C. Singer. 2004. Larval biology. (Book: On the Wings of Checkerspots: A Model System for Population Biology; Oxford University Press)
Hellmann, J. J., S. B. Weiss, J. F. McLaughlin, C. L. Boggs, P. R. Ehrlich, A. E. Launer, and D. D. Murphy. 2003. Do hypotheses from short-term studies hold in the long-term? An empirical test. Ecological Entomology 28: 74-84. Abstract
Hellmann, J. J. 2002. The effect of an environmental change on mobile butterfly larvae and the nutritional quality of their hosts. Journal of Animal Ecology 70: 925-936. PDF
McLaughlin, J. F.*, J. J. Hellmann*, C. L. Boggs, and P. R. Ehrlich. 2002. Climate change hastens population extinction. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 99: 6070-6074. (*=authors contributed equally) PDF
Hellmann, J. J. 2002. Butterflies as model systems for understanding and predicting the biological effects of climatic change. Pages 93-126 In Wildlife Responses to Climate Change. Schneider, S. H., and T. L. Root, eds. Island Press, Washington, D.C.
McLaughlin, J. F., J. J. Hellmann, P. R. Ehrlich, and C. L. Boggs. 2002. The route to extinction: population dynamics of a threatened butterfly. Oecologia 132: 538-548. Abstract
Smith, J. N. M., and J. J. Hellmann. 2002. Population persistence in fragmented landscapes. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 17: 397-399. Abstract
Hughes, J. B., J. J. Hellmann, T. H. Ricketts, and B. J. M. Bohannan. 2001. Counting the uncountable: statistical approaches to estimating microbial diversity. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 67: 4399-4406. Abstract
Heal, G., G. C. Daily, P. R. Ehrlich, J. Salzman, C. L. Boggs, J. J. Hellmann, J. B. Hughes, C. Kremen, and T. H. Ricketts. 2001. Protecting natural capital: ecosystem service districts. Stanford Environmental Law Journal 20: 333-364. Abstract
Hellmann, J. J., and G. W. Fowler. 1999. Bias, precision, and accuracy of four measures of species richness. Ecological Applications 9: 824-834. Abstract
Peterson, G., G. A. De Leo, J. J. Hellmann, M. A. Janssen, A. Kinzig, J. R. Malcolm, K. L. O’Brien, S. E. Pope, D. S. Rothman, E. Shevliakova, and R. R. T. Tinch. 1997. Uncertainty, climate change, and adaptive management. Conservation Ecology 1: 4. Abstract
Tools, data sets & reports
National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (co-authors: Merritts, D. J., B. Barrett, F. S. Chapin, H. D. Doremus, C. Groves, K. Haddad, J. Hellmann, L. Maguire, P. W. Mote, J. A. O’Leary, R. Rubin, D. Strickland, E. Toman, C. Mengelt, D. Policansky, S. Karras, H. Coleman, and J. Briscoe). 2015. A Review of the Landscape Conservation Cooperatives. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2015. doi:10.17226/21829. Report
Hellmann, J. J. 2013. Finding our way through climate change adaptation. Reilly Center Reports 1: 13-16. Article
Hellmann, J. J., J. D. K. Dzurisin, T. Wright, D. Cieslak, S. Pecoraro, K. E. Smith, K. Hayhoe, and K. L. Griffis-Kyle. 2013. Mosquitoes of North America with emphasis in the Midwest US: data to reveal long-term patterns of occurrence. Ecology 94: 1433. PDF
Advancing Adaptation in the City of Chicago: Climate Considerations for Management of Natural Areas. A. Derby Lewis, K. R. Hall and J. J. Hellmann. 2012.
Impacts of Climate Change on Biodiversity, Ecosystems and Ecosystem Services: Technical Input to the 2013 National Climate Assessment (Ch. 2: Biodiversity & Ch 4: Adaptation)